Parentheses work the same way as in any common programming language. They enclose an expression providing precedence over other operators.
Parentheses can be applied on any expression occurring in the language. (Except the if-else statement as it is not an expression, but a control statement.)
# results in 4 * 4 = 16 (1 + 3) * 4 # results in 1 + 12 = 13 1 + 3 * 4